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Průměrný učitel vypráví. Dobrý učitel vysvětluje. Výborný učitel ukazuje. Nejlepší učitel inspiruje.

Charles Farrar Browne

Tisková zpráva
docx / www / www

mendel
mendel

2014

Zprávy z laboratoře / Laboratory information

liposon liposon liposon

Picture of the week

Pravidelný seminář (29 T)

SEMINAR

Pravidelný seminář (29 T)

Stránky jsou archivovány Web archivem
Laboratorní stránky jsou zařazeny do Web archvivu

Pravidelný seminář (29 T) Tyto stránky jsou pravidelně archivovány Národní knihovnou ČR pro svou kulturní, vzdělávací, vědeckou, výzkumnou nebo jinou informační hodnotu za účelem dokumentace autentického vzorku českého webu. Jsou součástí kolekce českých webových stránek, které NK ČR hodlá dlouhodobě uchovávat a zpřístupňovat pro budoucí generace. Jejich záznam je součástí České národní bibliografie a katalogu NK ČR. Vyloučení odpovědnosti:
Národní knihovna ČR není odpovědná za věcný obsah archivovaných stránek. Zařazení stránek do archivace v žádném případě neznamená souhlas NK ČR s jejich obsahem ani nevyjadřuje podporu autorům těchto stránek či jejich myšlenkám a názorům. This website is regularly archived by the National Library of the Czech Republic for its cultural, educational, scientific, research or other values with the aim of documenting an authentic sample of the Czech web. It belongs to a collection of Czech websites to be preserved by the National Library and made available for posterity. Its record is included in the Czech National Bibliography and the National Library catalogue. Disclaimer:
The National Library of the Czech Republic is not responsible for content of the archived website. By archiving the website, the National Library does not endorse its content nor expresses its support to the website authors, their ideas or opinions.

Pravidelný seminář (29 T)

RESEARCH IN LAB

Chromatografická charakterizace aminokyselinových profilů vzorků moči pacientů s karcinomem prostaty
Pravidelný seminář (29 T)
Cílem studie bylo vytvořit protokol pro zpracování klinických vzorků moči pro získání aminokyselinových profilů pomocí optimalizované IEC separace s detekcí komplexů aminokyselin s ninhydrinem a následné zkrácení času analýzy pro klinicky zajímavé molekuly jako sarkosin či taurin.

Již před 10 lety se Česká republika spolu s dalšími devíti evropskými zeměmi staly členy Evropské unie. Ačkoliv si Česká republika oficiálně připomene svůj vstup do Evropské unie 1. května, Úřad vlády ČR ve spolupráci se Zastoupením Evropské komise v ČR a dalšími partnery přichystaly řadu akcí, které budou probíhat po celé jaro. Europe Day is observed annually on May 05, 2014. There are two separate designations of Europe Day: The Council of Europe's day was established in 1949, while the European Union's (EU) day celebrates the day the EU's predecessor was proposed in 1950. For the EU, the day is also known as Schuman Day, comme morating the historical declaration by French foreign minister Robert Schuman.

The Council of Europe was founded on May 5, 1949. The same day was chosen for its celebrations when the holiday was established in 1964. In 1985, the European Communities (later EU) adopted the European symbols of the Council of Europe, but decided to hold their Europe Day on May 9, in memorial of the Schuman Declaration of 1950. Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. It is the world's second-smallest continent by surface area. The European Union is an economic and political union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. The EU has developed a single market through a standardized system of laws. In addition a monetary union, the Eurozone, was established in 1999

Journal of Metallomics and Nanotechnologies

První číslo vychází v průběhu května 2014 Časopis Journal of Metallomics and Nanotechnologies vychází pouze elektronicky, čtvrtletně. Jeho obsahové zaměření je v oblastí nano-biochemie, nanotechonologie, biomedicína a nanomedicína. Časopis vychází bez regionálních mutací v českém, slovenském a anglickém jazyce. Vydavatel: Laboratoř metalomiky a nanotechnologií Mendelova univerzita v Brně, Zemědělská 1, 613 00, Brno, Česká republika http://web2.mendelu.cz/af_239_nanotech/J_Met_Nano/index.html

Zprávy z výzkumu/ Scientific Reports



Tropical Storm Genevieve Forms in Eastern Pacific
X-rays From A Young Supernova Remnant The seventh tropical depression of the Eastern Pacific Ocean formed and quickly ramped up to a tropical storm named "Genevieve." NOAA's GOES-West satellite captured an infrared image of the newborn storm being trailed by two other areas of developing low pressure to its east. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that Tropical Storm Genevieve was born on July 25 at 5 a.m. EDT. At that time, Genevieve had maximum sustained winds near 40 mph (65 kph). It was located near 12.2 north latitude and 134.4 west longitude, about 1,490 miles (2,400 km) east-southeast of South Point, Hawaii. NOAA's GOES-West satellite captured an infrared picture of Genevieve on July 25 at 8 a.m. EDT. The bulk of the storm's clouds appeared to be pushed east of the center, indicating that westerly wind shear was affecting the storm. The GOES image also showed that Genevieve was being "followed" by two other developing areas of low pressure to the east of the storm. By 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), Genevieve's winds increased to 45 mph (75 kph). The center of Tropical Storm Genevieve was located near latitude 12.3 north and longitude 135.5 west, moving 70 miles closer to South Point, Hawaii but still over 1,400 miles away. Genevieve was moving toward the west near 10 mph (17 kph) and
The Eagle Prepares to Land
W3 Star-forming RegionThe Apollo 11 Lunar Module Eagle, in a landing configuration was photographed in lunar orbit from the Command and Service Module Columbia. Inside the module were Commander Neil A. Armstrong and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin. The long rod-like protrusions under the landing pods are lunar surface sensing probes. Upon contact with the lunar surface, the probes sent a signal to the crew to shut down the descent engine. Orion Crew Module at the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building, Kennedy Space Center NASA's Orion spacecraft crew module has been stacked on the service module inside the Operations and Checkout Building at Kennedy Space Center -- renamed on July 21, 2014 as the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building in honor of the legendary astronaut and first man to set foot on the moon, Neil Armstrong. The Operations and Checkout Building was built in 1964. The facility has played a vital role in NASA’s spaceflight history. The high bay was used during the Apollo program to process and test the command, service and lunar modules. The facility is being used today to process and assemble NASA’s Orion spacecraft as the agency prepares to embark on the next giant leap in space exploration, sending astronauts to an asteroid and Mars. W3 Star-forming Region
NASA Officials and Astronauts Tour Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building
Icy moon Enceladus has underground seaAt the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, NASA officials and Apollo astronauts tour the refurbished Operations and Checkout Building, newly named for Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong, the first person to set foot on the moon. Viewing the Orion crew module stacked on top of the service module from left, are Kennedy Center Director Bob Cabana, Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, Apollo astronaut Jim Lovell, Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, and NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden. The building's high bay is being used to support the agency's new Orion spacecraft, which will lift off atop the Space Launch System. Orion is designed to take humans farther than they've ever gone before, serving as the exploration vehicle that will carry astronauts to deep space and sustain the crew during travel to destinations such as an asteroid or Mars. The visit of the former astronauts was part of NASA's 45th anniversary celebration of the moon landing. As the world watched, Neil Armstrong and Aldrin landed in the moon's Sea of Tranquility aboard the lunar module Eagle on July 20, 1969. Meanwhile, crewmate Collins orbited above in the command module Columbia. Image Credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett
Chandra Celebrates 15th Anniversary: Crab Nebula
Spacewalk ends early In 1054 AD, Chinese astronomers and others around the world noticed a new bright object in the sky. This “new star” was, in fact, the supernova explosion that created what is now called the Crab Nebula. At the center of the Crab Nebula is an extremely dense, rapidly rotating neutron star left behind by the explosion. The neutron star, also known as a pulsar, is spewing out a blizzard of high-energy particles, producing the expanding X-ray nebula seen by Chandra. In this new image, lower-energy X-rays from Chandra are red, medium energy X-rays are green, and the highest-energy X-rays are blue.
Single-Molecule Imaging of Dynamic Motions of Biomolecules in DNA Origami Nanostructures Using High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy
Spacewalk ends early Direct imaging of molecular motions is one of the most fundamental issues for elucidating the physical properties of individual molecules and their reaction mechanisms. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) enables direct molecular imaging, especially for biomolecules in the physiological environment. Because AFM can visualize the molecules at nanometer-scale spatial resolution, a versatile observation scaffold is needed for the precise imaging of molecule interactions in the reactions. The emergence of DNA origami technology allows the precise placement of desired molecules in the designed nanostructures and enables molecules to be detected at the single-molecule level. In our study, the DNA origami system was applied to visualize the detailed motions of target molecules in reactions using high-speed AFM (HS-AFM), which enables the analysis of dynamic motions of biomolecules in a subsecond time resolution. In this system, biochemical properties such as the placement of various double-stranded DNAs (dsDNAs) containing unrestricted DNA sequences, modified nucleosides, and chemical functions can be incorporated. From a physical point of view, the tension and rotation of dsDNAs can be controlled by placement into the DNA nanostructures. From a topological point of view, the orientations of dsDNAs and various shapes of dsDNAs including Holliday junctions can be incorporated for studies on reaction mechanisms. In this Account, we describe the combination of the DNA origami system and HS-AFM for imaging various biochemical reactions including enzymatic reactions and DNA structural changes. To observe the behaviors and reactions of DNA methyltransferase and DNA repair enzymes, the substrate dsDNAs were incorporated into the cavity of the DNA frame, and the enzymes that bound to the target dsDNA were observed using HS-AFM. DNA recombination was also observed using the recombination substrates and Holliday junction intermediates placed in the DNA frame, and the direction of the reactions was controlled by introducing structural stress to the substrates. In addition, the movement of RNA polymerase and its reaction were visualized using a template dsDNA attached to the origami structure. To observe DNA structural changes, G-quadruplex formation and disruption, the switching behaviors of photoresponsive oligonucleotides, and B–Z transition were visualized using the DNA frame observation system. For the formation and disruption of G-quadruplex and double-helix DNA, the two dsDNA chains incorporated into the DNA frame could amplify the small structural change to the global structural change, which enabled the visualization of their association and dissociation by HS-AFM. The dynamic motion of the helical rotation induced by the B–Z transition was also directly imaged in the DNA frame. Furthermore, the stepwise motions of mobile DNA along the DNA track were visualized on the DNA origami surface. These target-orientated observation systems should contribute to the detailed analysis of biomolecule motions in real time and at molecular resolution.
Engineering DNA Self-Assemblies as Templates for Functional Nanostructures
Spacewalk ends early DNA is a well-known natural molecule that carries genetic information. In recent decades, DNA has been used beyond its genetic role as a building block for the construction of engineering materials. Many strategies, such as tile assembly, scaffolded origami and DNA bricks, have been developed to design and produce 1D, 2D, and 3D architectures with sophisticated morphologies. Moreover, the spatial addressability of DNA nanostructures and sequence-dependent recognition enable functional elements to be precisely positioned and allow for the control of chemical and biochemical processes. The spatial arrangement of heterogeneous components using DNA nanostructures as the templates will aid in the fabrication of functional materials that are difficult to produce using other methods and can address scientific and technical challenges in interdisciplinary research. For example, plasmonic nanoparticles can be assembled into well-defined configurations with high resolution limit while exhibiting desirable collective behaviors, such as near-field enhancement. Conducting metallic or polymer patterns can be synthesized site-specifically on DNA nanostructures to form various controllable geometries, which could be used for electronic nanodevices. Biomolecules can be arranged into organized networks to perform programmable biological functionalities, such as distance-dependent enzyme-cascade activities. DNA nanostructures can carry multiple cytoactive molecules and cell-targeting groups simultaneously to address medical issues such as targeted therapy and combined administration. In this Account, we describe recent advances in the functionalization of DNA nanostructures in different fashions based on our research efforts in nanophotonics, nanoelectronics, and
Light-Driven DNA Nanomachine with a Photoresponsive Molecular Engine
Spacewalk ends early DNA is regarded as an excellent nanomaterial due to its supramolecular property of duplex formation through A–T and G–C complementary pairs. By simply designing sequences, we can create any desired 2D or 3D nanoarchitecture with DNA. Based on these nanoarchitectures, motional DNA-based nanomachines have also been developed. Most of the nanomachines require molecular fuels to drive them. Typically, a toehold exchange reaction is applied with a complementary DNA strand as a fuel. However, repetitive operation of the machines accumulates waste DNA duplexes in the solution that gradually deteriorate the motional efficiency. Hence, we are facing an “environmental problem” even in the nanoworld. One of the direct solutions to this problem is to use clean energy, such as light. Since light does not contaminate the reaction system, a DNA nanomachine run by a photon engine can overcome the drawback of waste that is a problem with molecular-fueled engines.
Switchable Reconfiguration of Nucleic Acid Nanostructures by Stimuli-Responsive DNA Machines
Spacewalk ends early The base sequence in DNA dictates structural and reactivity features of the biopolymer. These properties are implemented to use DNA as a unique material for developing the area of DNA nanotechnology. The design of DNA machines represents a rapidly developing research field in the area of DNA nanotechnology. The present Account discusses the switchable reconfiguration of nucleic acid nanostructures by stimuli-responsive DNA machines, and it highlights potential applications and future perspectives of the area. Programmed switchable DNA machines driven by various fuels and antifuels, such as pH, Hg2+ ions/cysteine, or nucleic acid strands/antistrands, are described. These include the assembly of DNA tweezers, walkers, a rotor, a pendulum, and more. Using a pH-oscillatory system, the oscillatory mechanical operation of a DNA pendulum is presented. Specifically, the synthesis and “mechanical” properties of interlocked DNA rings are described. This is exemplified with the preparation of interlocked DNA catenanes and a DNA rotaxane. The dynamic fuel-driven reconfiguration of the catenane/rotaxane structures is followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of DNA machines as functional scaffolds to reconfigurate Au nanoparticle assemblies and to switch the fluorescence features within fluorophore/Au nanoparticle conjugates between quenching and surface-enhanced fluorescence states are addressed. Specifically, the fluorescence features of the different DNA machines are characterized as a function of the spatial separation between the fluorophore and Au nanoparticles. The experimental results are supported by theoretical calculations.
The Predictive Power of Synthetic Nucleic Acid Technologies in RNA Biology
Spacewalk ends early The impact of nucleic acid nanotechnology in terms of transforming motifs from biology in synthetic and translational ways is widely appreciated. But it is also emerging that the thinking and vision behind nucleic acids as construction material has broader implications, not just in nanotechnology or even synthetic biology, but can feed back into our understanding of biology itself. Physicists have treated nucleic acids as polymers and connected physical principles to biology by abstracting out the molecular interactions. In contrast, biologists delineate molecular players and pathways related to nucleic acids and how they may be networked. But in vitro nucleic acid nanotechnology has provided a valuable framework for nucleic acids by connecting its biomolecular interactions with its materials properties and thereby superarchitecture ultramanipulation that on multiple occasions has pre-empted the elucidation of how living cells themselves are exploiting these same structural concepts. This Account seeks to showcase the larger implications of certain architectural principles that have arisen from the field of structural DNA/RNA nanotechnology in biology. Here we draw connections between these principles and particular molecular phenomena within living systems that have fed in to our understanding of how the cell uses nucleic acids as construction material to achieve different functions. We illustrate this by considering a few exciting and emerging examples in biology in the context of both switchable systems and scaffolding type systems. Due to the scope of this Account, we will focus our discussion on examples of the RNA scaffold as summarized.
Nanomechanical Molecular Devices made of DNA Origami
Spacewalk ends early Eight years have passed since the striking debut of the DNA origami technique (Rothemund, P. W. K. Nature 2006, 440, 297-302), in which long single-stranded DNA is folded into a designed nanostructure, in either 2D or 3D, with the aid of many short staple strands. The number of proposals for new design principles for DNA origami structures seems to have already reached a peak. It is apparent that DNA origami study is now entering the second phase of creating practical applications. The development of functional nanomechanical molecular devices using the DNA origami technique is one such application attracting significant interest from researchers in the field. Nanomechanical DNA origami devices, which maintain the characteristics of DNA origami structures, have various advantages over conventional DNA nanomachines. Comparatively high assembly yield, relatively large size visible via atomic force microscopy (AFM) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the capability to assemble multiple functional groups with precision using multiple staple strands are some of the advantages of the DNA origami technique for constructing sophisticated molecular devices.
Developing DNA Nanotechnology Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence
An important effort in the DNA nanotechnology field is focused on the rational design and manufacture of molecular structures and dynamic devices made of DNA. As is the case for other technologies that deal with manipulation of matter, rational development requires high quality and informative feedback on the building blocks and final products. For DNA nanotechnology such feedback is typically provided by gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These analytical tools provide excellent structural information; however, usually they do not provide high-resolution dynamic information. For the development of DNA-made dynamic devices such as machines, motors, robots, and computers this constitutes a major problem. Bulk-fluorescence techniques are capable of providing dynamic information, but because only ensemble averaged information is obtained, the technique may not adequately describe the dynamics in the context of complex DNA devices. The single-molecule fluorescence (SMF) technique offers a unique combination of capabilities that make it an excellent tool for guiding the development of DNA-made devices. The technique has been increasingly used in DNA nanotechnology, especially for the analysis of structure, dynamics, integrity, and operation of DNA-made devices; however, its capabilities are not yet sufficiently familiar to the community.
Diagnostic Applications of Nucleic Acid Circuits
Spacewalk ends early While the field of DNA computing and molecular programming was engendered in large measure as a curiosity-driven exercise, it has taken on increasing importance for analytical applications. This is in large measure because of the modularity of DNA circuitry, which can serve as a programmable intermediate between inputs and outputs. These qualities may make nucleic acid circuits useful for making decisions relevant to diagnostic applications. This is especially true given that nucleic acid circuits can potentially directly interact with and be triggered by diagnostic nucleic acids and other analytes. Chemists are, by and large, unaware of many of these advances, and this Account provides a means of touching on what might seem to be an arcane field. We begin by explaining nucleic acid amplification reactions that can lead to signal amplification, such as catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) and the hybridization chain reaction (HCR). In these circuits, a single-stranded input acts on kinetically trapped substrates via exposed toeholds and strand exchange reactions, refolding the substrates and allowing them to interact with one another. As multiple duplexes (CHA) or concatemers of increasing length (HCR) are generated, there are opportunities to couple these outputs to different analytical modalities, including transduction to fluorescent, electrochemical, and colorimetric signals. Because both amplification and transduction are at their root dependent on the programmability of Waston–Crick base pairing, nucleic acid circuits can be much more readily tuned and adapted to new applications than can many other biomolecular amplifiers. As an example, robust methods for real-time monitoring of isothermal amplification reactions have been developed recently.
DNA Nanotechnology Based on i-Motif Structures
Spacewalk ends early Most biological processes happen at the nanometer scale, and understanding the energy transformations and material transportation mechanisms within living organisms has proved challenging. To better understand the secrets of life, researchers have investigated artificial molecular motors and devices over the past decade because such systems can mimic certain biological processes. DNA nanotechnology based on i-motif structures is one system that has played an important role in these investigations. In this Account, we summarize recent advances in functional DNA nanotechnology based on i-motif structures. The i-motif is a DNA quadruplex that occurs as four stretches of cytosine repeat sequences form C•CH+ base pairs, and their stabilization requires slightly acidic conditions. This unique property has produced the first DNA molecular motor driven by pH changes. The motor is reliable, and studies show that it is capable of millisecond running speeds, comparable to the speed of natural protein motors. With careful design, the output of these types of motors was combined to drive micrometer-sized cantilevers bend. Using established DNA nanostructure assembly and functionalization methods, researchers can easily integrate the motor within other DNA assembled structures and functional units, producing DNA molecular devices with new functions such as suprahydrophobic/suprahydrophilic smart surfaces that switch, intelligent nanopores triggered by pH changes, molecular logic gates, and DNA nanosprings. Recently, researchers have produced motors driven by light and electricity, which have allowed DNA motors to be integrated within silicon-based nanodevices. Moreover, some devices based on i-motif structures have proven useful for investigating processes within living cells.
Functional DNA-Containing Nanomaterials: Cellular Applications in Biosensing, Imaging, and Targeted Therapy
Spacewalk ends early DNA performs a vital function as a carrier of genetic code, but in the field of nanotechnology, DNA molecules can catalyze chemical reactions in the cell, that is, DNAzymes, or bind with target-specific ligands, that is, aptamers. These functional DNAs with different modifications have been developed for sensing, imaging, and therapeutic systems. Thus, functional DNAs hold great promise for future applications in nanotechnology and bioanalysis. However, these functional DNAs face challenges, especially in the field of biomedicine. For example, functional DNAs typically require the use of cationic transfection reagents to realize cellular uptake. Such reagents enter the cells, increasing the difficulty of performing bioassays in vivo and potentially damaging the cell’s nucleus. To address this obstacle, nanomaterials, such as metallic, carbon, silica, or magnetic materials, have been utilized as DNA carriers or assistants. In this Account, we describe selected examples of functional DNA-containing nanomaterials and their applications from our recent research and those of others. As models, we have chosen to highlight DNA/nanomaterial complexes consisting of gold nanoparticles, graphene oxides, and aptamer–micelles, and we illustrate the potential of such complexes in biosensing, imaging, and medical diagnostics. Under proper conditions, multiple ligand–receptor interactions, decreased steric hindrance, and increased surface roughness can be achieved from a high density of DNA that is bound to the surface of nanomaterials, resulting in a higher affinity for complementary DNA and other targets. In addition, this high density of DNA causes a high local salt concentration and negative charge density, which can prevent DNA degradation. For example, DNAzymes assembled on gold nanoparticles can effectively catalyze chemical reactions even in living cells. And it has been confirmed that DNA–nanomaterial complexes can enter cells more easily than free single-stranded DNA.
DNA Materials: Bridging Nanotechnology and Biotechnology
In recent decades, DNA has taken on an assortment of diverse roles, not only as the central genetic molecule in biological systems but also as a generic material for nanoscale engineering. DNA possesses many exceptional properties, including its biological function, biocompatibility, molecular recognition ability, and nanoscale controllability. Taking advantage of these unique attributes, a variety of DNA materials have been created with properties derived both from the biological functions and from the structural characteristics of DNA molecules. These novel DNA materials provide a natural bridge between nanotechnology and biotechnology, leading to far-ranging real-world applications. In this Account, we describe our work on the design and construction of DNA materials. Based on the role of DNA in the construction, we categorize DNA materials into two classes: substrate and linker. As a substrate, DNA interfaces with enzymes in biochemical reactions, making use of molecular biology’s “enzymatic toolkit”. For example, employing DNA as a substrate, we utilized enzymatic ligation to prepare the first bulk hydrogel made entirely of DNA. Using this DNA hydrogel as a structural scaffold, we created a protein-producing DNA hydrogel via linking plasmid DNA onto the hydrogel matrix through enzymatic ligation. Furthermore, to fully make use of the advantages of both DNA materials and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we prepared thermostable branched DNA that could remain intact even under denaturing conditions, allowing for their use as modular primers for PCR. Moreover, via enzymatic polymerization, we have recently constructed a physical DNA hydrogel with unique internal structure and mechanical properties. As a linker, we have used DNA to interface with other functional moieties, including gold nanoparticles, clay minerals, proteins, and lipids, allowing for hybrid materials with unique properties for desired applications. For example, we recently designed a DNA–protein conjugate as a universal adapter for protein detection. We further demonstrate a diverse assortment of applications for these DNA materials including diagnostics, protein production, controlled drug release systems, the exploration of life evolution, and plasmonics.
President Obama Meets With Crew of Apollo 11
Spacewalk ends early President Barack Obama meets with Apollo 11 astronauts Michael Collins, seated left, Buzz Aldrin, Carol Armstrong, widow of Apollo 11 commander, Neil Armstrong, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, and Patricia “Pat” Falcone, OSTP Associate Director for National Security and International Affairs, far right, Tuesday, July 22, 2014, in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, during the 45th anniversary week of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.
NASA's Webb Sunshield Stacks Up to Test!
Spacewalk ends early The Sunshield on NASA's James Webb Space Telescope is the largest part of the observatory—five layers of thin membrane that must unfurl reliably in space to precise tolerances. Last week, for the first time, engineers stacked and unfurled a full-sized test unit of the Sunshield and it worked perfectly. The Sunshield is about the length of a tennis court, and will be folded up like an umbrella around the Webb telescope’s mirrors and instruments during launch. Once it reaches its orbit, the Webb telescope will receive a command from Earth to unfold, and separate the Sunshield's five layers into their precisely stacked arrangement with its kite-like shape. The Sunshield test unit was stacked and expanded at a cleanroom in the Northrop Grumman facility in Redondo Beach, California. The Sunshield separates the observatory into a warm sun-facing side and a cold side where the sunshine is blocked from interfering with the sensitive infrared instruments. The infrared instruments need to be kept very cold (under 50 K or -370 degrees F) to operate. The Sunshield protects these sensitive instruments with an effective sun protection factor or SPF of 1,000,000 (suntan lotion generally has an SPF of 8-50). In addition to providing a cold environment, the Sunshield provides a thermally stable environment. This stability is essential to maintaining proper alignment of the primary mirror segments as the telescope changes its orientation to the sun. The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It will be the most powerful space telescope ever built. Webb is an international project led by NASA with its partners, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. For more information about the Webb telescope, visit: www.jwst.nasa.gov or www.nasa.gov/webb For more information on the Webb Sunshield, visit: http://jwst.nasa.gov/sunshield.html
Triple negative breast cancer therapy with CDK1 siRNA delivered by cationic lipid assisted PEG-PLA nanoparticles
Spacewalk ends early There is no effective clinical therapy yet for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) without particular human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In this study, we report a molecularly targeted and synthetic lethality-based siRNA therapy for TNBC treatment, using cationic lipid assisted poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactide) (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles as the siRNA carrier. It is demonstrated that only in c-Myc overexpressed TNBC cells, while not in normal mammary epithelial cells, delivery of siRNA targeting cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) with the nanoparticle carrier (NPsiCDK1) induces cell viability decreasing and cell apoptosis through RNAi-mediated CDK1 expression inhibition, indicating the synthetic lethality between c-Myc with CDK1 in TNBC cells. Moreover, systemic delivery of NPsiCDK1 is able to suppress tumor growth in mice bearing SUM149 and BT549 xenograft and cause no systemic toxicity or activate the innate immune response, suggesting the therapeutic promise with such nanoparticles carrying siCDK1 for c-Myc overexpressed triple negative breast cancer.
Peptide-functionalized nanoparticles for selective targeting of pancreatic tumor
Spacewalk ends early Chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer is hampered by the tumor's physio-pathological complexity. Here we show a targeted nanomedicine using a new ligand, the CKAAKN peptide, which had been identified by phage display, as an efficient homing device within the pancreatic pathological microenvironment. Taking advantage of the squalenoylation platform, the CKAAKN peptide was conjugated to squalene (SQCKAAKN) and then co-nanoprecipitated with the squalenoyl prodrug of gemcitabine (SQdFdC) giving near monodisperse nanoparticles (NPs) for safe intravenous injection. By interacting with a novel target pathway, the Wnt-2, the CKAAKN functionalization enabled nanoparticles: (i) to specifically interact with both tumor cells and angiogenic vessels and (ii) to simultaneously promote pericyte coverage, thus leading to the normalization of the vasculature likely improving the tumor accessibility for therapy. All together, this approach represents a unique targeted nanoparticle design with remarkable selectivity towards pancreatic cancer and multiple mechanisms of action.
Voltammetric determination of inorganic arsenic
Spacewalk ends early Arsenic is a notorious poison and one of the world's greatest environmental hazards. Electrochemical techniques hold great promise for detecting or monitoring arsenic because they are highly sensitive, easy to perform, and low cost. We present and discuss the voltammetric determination of inorganic arsenic. In combination with an effective preconcentration (or deposition) step, voltammetry, as one of the most powerful techniques in electroanalysis, achieves the sensitive measurement of trace arsenic. On the basis of organic and biological molecules and inorganic nanomaterials, such as As(III)-specific ligands, enzymes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanoparticles of noble metals (gold, silver and platinum), we comprehensively review electrochemical voltammetry for the detection of inorganic arsenic [As(III) and As(V)]. Also, we show how potential obstacles are overcome using chemically-modified electrodes. Finally, we cover future development and applications based on electrochemical techniques.
A highly abundant bacteriophage discovered in the unknown sequences of human faecal metagenomes
Spacewalk ends early Metagenomics, or sequencing of the genetic material from a complete microbial community, is a promising tool to discover novel microbes and viruses. Viral metagenomes typically contain many unknown sequences. Here we describe the discovery of a previously unidentified bacteriophage present in the majority of published human faecal metagenomes, which we refer to as crAssphage. Its ~97?kbp genome is six times more abundant in publicly available metagenomes than all other known phages together; it comprises up to 90% and 22% of all reads in virus-like particle (VLP)-derived metagenomes and total community metagenomes, respectively; and it totals 1.68% of all human faecal metagenomic sequencing reads in the public databases. The majority of crAssphage-encoded proteins match no known sequences in the database, which is why it was not detected before. Using a new co-occurrence profiling approach, we predict a Bacteroides host for this phage, consistent with Bacteroides-related protein homologues and a unique carbohydrate-binding domain encoded in the phage genome.
Arrayed lipid bilayer chambers allow single-molecule analysis of membrane transporter activity
Spacewalk ends early Nano- to micron-size reaction chamber arrays (femtolitre chamber arrays) have facilitated the development of sensitive and quantitative biological assays, such as single-molecule enzymatic assays, digital PCR and digital ELISA. However, the versatility of femtolitre chamber arrays is limited to reactions that occur in aqueous solutions. Here we report an arrayed lipid bilayer chamber system (ALBiC) that contains sub-million femtolitre chambers, each sealed with a stable 4-µm-diameter lipid bilayer membrane. When reconstituted with a limiting amount of the membrane transporter proteins ?-hemolysin or F0F1-ATP synthase, the chambers within the ALBiC exhibit stochastic and quantized transporting activities. This demonstrates that the single-molecule analysis of passive and active membrane transport is achievable with the ALBiC system. This new platform broadens the versatility of femtolitre chamber arrays and paves the way for novel applications aimed at furthering our mechanistic understanding of membrane proteins’ function.
Deep sequencing extends the diversity of human papillomaviruses in human skin
Spacewalk ends early Most viruses in human skin are known to be human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Previous sequencing of skin samples has identified 273 different cutaneous HPV types, including 47 previously unknown types. In the present study, we wished to extend prior studies using deeper sequencing. This deeper sequencing without prior PCR of a pool of 142 whole genome amplified skin lesions identified 23 known HPV types, 3 novel putative HPV types and 4 non-HPV viruses. The complete sequence was obtained for one of the known putative types and almost the complete sequence was obtained for one of the novel putative types. In addition, sequencing of amplimers from HPV consensus PCR of 326 skin lesions detected 385 different HPV types, including 226 previously unknown putative types. In conclusion, metagenomic deep sequencing of human skin samples identified no less than 396 different HPV types in human skin, out of which 229 putative HPV types were previously unknown.

AKTUALITY | NEWS


Journal of Metallomics and Nanotechnologie
laboratorní časopis
- informace pro autory

Cell culture consumables - nové řešení pro pěstování buněk v laboratoři
RNDr. Milan Řezka.
Úterý 29.7.2014
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Úprava sankcí za porušení podmínek pro zadávání veřejných zakázek
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Technologická příprava nanočástic selenu a antibiotiotickými léčivy s antibakteriálním účinkem
Ing. Vedran Milosavljevic, Doc. RNDr. Pavel Kopel, Ph.D., Doc. RNDr. Vojtěch Adam, Ph.D., Mgr. Dagmar Chudobová, Ing. Kristýna Číhalová, MSc. Amitava Moulick, Ph.D., Prof. Ing. René Kizek, Ph.D.
31. 7. 2014, 10:00 h
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Zpracovní technických dat do informačního systému
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31. 07. 2014, od 12:00 – 18:00 h
pozvánka

Synthesis of nanocomposite of graphene oxide and nanoparticles
Doc. RNDr. Pavel Kopel, Ph.D., Ing. Kristýna Číhalová, Mgr. Zbyněk Heger, Ing. Vedran Milosavlejvic, MSc. Ngyuen Viet Hoai, Doc. RNDr. Vojtěch Adam, Ph.D., Prof. Ing. René Kizek, Ph.D.
01. 08. 2014, od 13:00
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Příprava a zpracování letového harmonogramu stratosferického balonového testu DNA biosenzoru
Jan Zítka, MSc. Amitava Moulick, Ph.D., Ing. Vedran Milosavljevic, Doc. RNDr. Pavel Kopel, Ph.D., Mgr. Markéta Vaculovičová, Ph.D., Mgr. Ondřej Zítka, Ph.D., Doc. RNDr. Vojtěch Adam, Ph.D., Prof. Ing. René Kizek, Ph.D.
1. 8. 2014, 12:00 h
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Akce

Nanocon 2014
6. mezinárodní konference
5. - 7. listopadu 2014 - Hotel Voroněž I, Brno, Česká republika, EU
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Journal of Metallomics and Nanotechnologies

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Využití cévní náhrady jako nástroje pro posouzení antimikrobiality látek na povrchu cévních náhrad

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